Does Gideon Still Make a Difference?
Thomas F. Liotti
On the twenty-fifth anniversary of the United States Supreme Court’s landmark decision in Gideon v. Wainwright, it has never been more important to reaffirm a commitment to the protection of indigent defendants in the criminal justice system. In this article, Liotti explores the historical significance of Gideon, including the cases and atmosphere that led up to the decision; New York’s statutory response to Gideon; several cases that might spur current litigation surrounding the rights of indigent defendants; the quality of representation of indigent clients in New York; and the United States Supreme Court’s treatment of indigent defendants, with special emphasis on equal protection doctrine. Liotti concludes with a general litigation strategy for those who fight for equal justice for the poor and marginalized.
The Right to Work and Earn a Living Wage: A Proposed Constitutional Amendment
William P. Quigley
The right to work and earn a living wage is one of the fundamental principles built into the fabric of our society. In this article, Quigley proposes a constitutional amendment that would commit this nation to providing a living wage employment opportunity for all of society. Though cautious not to address the implementation of such a constitutional amendment, this article outlines the basic framework of how a guarantee of employment at a wage substantially higher than the current minimum might work.
Gender Inequality in In Vitro Fertilization: Controlling Women’s Reproductive Autonomy
Melissa E. Fraser
This article offers a critique of developing reproductive technologies, namely In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), by suggesting a two-step analysis which (1) analyzes how IVF technology can create inequitable power structures for women who turn to it, and (2) places IVF technology within a larger pattern of attempts to control all women’s reproductive autonomy. Fraser argues that it is necessary and essential to question the development and proliferation of reproductive technologies to gain control of them and utilize them for the benefit of all women.